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Polscy rolnicy najmłodszymi w Europie
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Polscy rolnicy najmłodszymi w Europie

Wtorek, 15 października 2019
Obecnie Polska radzi sobie bardzo dobrze na spożywczym rynku UE. Według danych Ministerstwa Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi Polska jest liderem w Unii Europejskiej w produkcji drobiu, owoców, pieczarek. Obecnie na eksport trafia 80% polskiej wołowiny, 45% drobiu i 30 % produktów mleczarskich. W dodatku według danych Instytutu Socjologii z UMK w Toruniu Struktura demograficzna polskiego rolnictwa świadczy, że rolnicy polscy są najmłodszymi w Europie. Mimo tego polskie gospodarstwa stoją na rozdrożu. Polska zmaga się z najniższym poziomem edukacji wśród właścicieli ziemskich w Unii Europejskiej. Czy polscy rolnicy powinni się dokształcić? Czy ich wiedza jest wystarczająca? Czy obecna konkurencyjność polskiej wsi utrzyma albo zwiększy się w perspektywie kilkunastu najbliższych lat?
Problemów jest wiele. Nie tylko wykształcenie, ale także ograniczona wielkość areałów czy mentalność części rolniczego społeczeństwa, którą można przyrównać do „chłopskiej”.

Młodzi rolnicy przełamują stereotypy

Polacy żyją ze świadomością, że przez ostatnie 15 lat wieś niesamowicie się rozwinęła. Znaczna część społeczeństwa zgadza się z dopłatami dla rolników, jednakże nie mają oni pojęcia na co konkretnie te dotacje są przeznaczane. Wyniki badań mogą być zaskakujące - mamy do czynienia ze skrajną sytuacją, której wcześniej nie było.

W warstwie kulturowej polskich rolników, głównie tych gospodarujących na niewielkim areale, trzeba uwzględniać silne wciąż elementy kultury chłopskiej.- stwierdza Dr hab. Wojciech Knieć z Instytutu Socjologii na UMK w Toruniu. Ich przykładem jest przede wszystkim racjonalność ekonomiczna nie oparta na motywie zysku, a bardziej na przywiązaniu do tradycji i obyczaju. Jest ona sprzeczna z rynkowym podejściem do prowadzenia gospodarstwa rolnego.
Natomiast młodzi rolnicy gospodarujący na areale w przedziale 20-50 ha są dobrze wykształceni, posiadają kierunkowe kwalifikacje rolnicze oraz bardzo często uczestniczą w kursach doszkalających.
 - przekonuje socjolog Mimo odnoszonych sukcesów, polska wieś stwarza paradoksy przez które sukces na rynku międzynarodowym nie musi wcale być trwały. Wydaje się, że to właśnie rolnicy doszkalający się, ci którzy cały czas udoskonalają swoje metody produkcji powinni znaleźć się w centrum uwagi promodernizacyjnej polityki rolnej państwa, aby uniknąć stagnacji rozwoju. – dodaje Dr hab. Wojciech Knieć.
Jeżeli państwo nie skupi uwagi na młodych rolnikach to osiągnięte efekty i sukcesy mogą być bardziej kruche niż się spodziewano.


Nowoczesne rozwiązania kontra tradycja

Starsza część rolników swoją wiedzę opiera na doświadczeniu. Jak zaradzić ich niechęci do dalszego rozwoju i edukacji? Z danych Instytutu Socjologii UMK w Toruniu można odczytać, że to właśnie oni w największym stopniu są odpowiedzialni za najniższy w Unii Europejskiej współczynnik wykształcenia wśród farmerów.

Odpowiedzią może być e-learning. Niweluje on barierę nie tylko dystansu, ale i czasu, które tak często powstrzymują rolników od poszerzania swojej wiedzy i stosowania nowych metod. Pogodzenie edukacji z cyklem pracy rolników może być szansą na wzrost poziomu edukacji wśród rolników. W Szkole Głównej Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie metodą e-learningu prowadzonych jest blisko 100 kursów oraz część zajęć dydaktycznych na wszystkich wydziałach uczelni. – mówi dr inż. Krzysztof Szwejk, Rzecznik Prasowy SGGW.  W ramach programu UE Kapitał Ludzki na Wydziale Rolnictwa i Biologii tą metodą realizowany był pełny cykl studiów, który ukończyło  60 osób. – dodaje pracownik Szkoły Głównej Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego.

W Polsce rośnie liczba kursów prowadzonych tą metodą, jednak nadal e-learning nie cieszy się dużą popularnością.  Na tym polu wciąż jest wiele do zrobienia. Dotyczy to także zmiany mentalności przyszłych studentów, a dobrze opracowanych do szkolenia e-learningowego kierunków studiów wciąż jest zbyt mało. - zauważa rzecznik prasowy SGGW.  

A co na ten temat sądzą właściciele gospodarstw? Kluczowe jest śledzenie nowych rozwiązań technologicznych obniżających koszty produkcji czy też zwiększających jej jakość i efektywność. To wszystko wymaga dużej wiedzy i jednocześnie otwartości na jej ciągłe uzupełnianie. Niewątpliwe łatwiej o takie postawy wśród młodszego pokolenia rolników, ale w grupie starszych rolników również czasem się je spotyka. Dużym wyzwaniem jest często dostęp do najnowszej wiedzy o poszczególnych kierunkach produkcji rolnej. – mówi Grzegorz Brodziak.

Ewolucja gospodarstw

Polskie gospodarstwa rolne coraz bardziej przypominają firmy usługowe, łamiąc przy tym stereotyp zacofanej wsi. Jeżeli Polska ma być coraz bardziej konkurencyjna na rynku UE jest to niezbędny etap, którego nie da się przeskoczyć.

Rolnictwo również należy do branż, w których zachodzą dynamiczne przemiany i zdobytą wiedzę trzeba cały czas uzupełniać. Rolnik to przecież przedsiębiorca, który zajmuje się całym procesem biznesowym – począwszy od planowania produkcji, zapewnienie jej finansowania, przez jej realizację (uprawa roślin, produkcja pasz, chów zwierząt, zatrudnianie i kierowanie pracownikami), aż po marketing i sprzedaż gotowych produktów. Nawet w skali niewielkiego gospodarstwa wymaga to dużej wiedzy, śledzenia trendów konsumenckich, rynków zaopatrzenia i zbytu. – stwierdza Grzegorz Brodziak, Dyrektor Zarządzający w firmie Goodvalley.

Jednak polskie rolnictwo wciąż czeka daleka droga. Zmiany, szczególnie te w mentalności, będą zachodzić przez wiele następnych lat. Zauważa to Dr hab. Wojciech Knieć - Nie można zapomnieć, że cały czas istnieje opór kulturowy powstrzymujący rolników od sprzedaży małych gospodarstw, będący wynikiem traktowania gospodarstwa rolnego jako „posagu”, zabezpieczenia na przyszłość. Jednakże z czasem ta tendencja będzie malała.

Współpraca poszukiwaną odpowiedzią

Zrozumienie potrzeb nie tylko rynku, ale również systemu i drugiego rolnika jest niezbędne do dalszego rozwoju. Niestety duża część szkół nie dysponuje odpowiednim zapleczem, co często wynika z ograniczonych budżetów. Problemem jest również zbyt mały udział praktycznej nauki zawodu w naszym systemie edukacji rolniczej. Co zatem należy zrobić, aby rolnictwo w Polsce się rozwijało? Niestety, nie ma prostej recepty na sukces.

Bardzo ważna jest współpraca szkół i uczelni rolniczych z dużymi przedsiębiorstwami rolnym, które posiadają dostęp do najnowszej wiedzy oraz dysponują zapleczem kadrowym i technicznym, które mogą zaoferować praktykantom i stażystom optymalne warunki zdobywania wiedzy i doświadczenia praktycznego. To samo dotyczy współpracy dużych przedsiębiorstw rolnych z małym gospodarstwami, zarówno poprzez umowy gospodarcze i kontraktację produktów rolnych, jak i w formie seminariów i warsztatów poświęconych wybranym zagadnieniem produkcyjnym. – przekonuje Dyrektor Goodvalley.



tagi: rolnictwo, ekonomia, gospodarka, eksport, Goodvalley,


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