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Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/DB/pgsql.php on line 323

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Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/DB/pgsql.php on line 323

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Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/DB/pgsql.php on line 323

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Strict Standards: Non-static method xajaxPluginManager::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /__handel_admin/lib/xajax.inc.php on line 194

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Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/DB/pgsql.php on line 323

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Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/DB/pgsql.php on line 323

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Spory między Skarbem Państwa a inwestorami coraz częściej kończą się ugodą

Porady Prawne i Finansowe

Spory między Skarbem Państwa a inwestorami coraz częściej kończą się ugodą

Piątek, 17 stycznia 2020
Spory publiczno-prywatne najczęściej pojawiają się przy okazji inwestycji infrastrukturalnych i są efektem opóźnień w realizacji kontraktu albo nieprecyzyjnej umowy. Co roku jest ich ok. 3 tys., a w 90 proc. przypadków kończą się sądową wygraną Skarbu Państwa. Rośnie jednak liczba sporów rozwiązywanych w drodze ugody – w ubiegłym roku było ich 84, o łącznej wartości roszczeń sięgającej 1,5 mld zł. Zarówno urzędnicy, jak i przedsiębiorcy coraz częściej widzą korzyść w mediacjach i zawieraniu ugód – zwłaszcza że prawo temu sprzyja, a jeszcze większe możliwości w tym zakresie stworzy od 2021 roku nowe Prawo zamówień publicznych. Barierą pozostaje jednak wciąż pokutujące, zwłaszcza wśród urzędników, przekonanie, że bezpieczniej iść do sądu.
– Spory na linii wykonawca prywatny – inwestor publiczny są w zasadzie immanentną cechą procesów inwestycyjnych. Najwięcej tego typu sporów powstaje na gruncie inwestycji infrastrukturalnych. Nie mówimy tylko o drogach i GDDKiA, ale szerzej, również o budowie budynków użyteczności publicznej – mówi agencji Newseria Biznes Mariusz Haładyj, prezes Prokuratorii Generalnej Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej.

Rokrocznie do Prokuratorii Generalnej RP, która reprezentuje Skarb Państwa przed sądami powszechnymi i polubownymi, trafia około 3 tys. spraw o łącznej wartości roszczeń sięgającej ok. 15 mld zł.

– Najczęstszą przyczyną takich sporów są opóźnienia. Wtedy inwestor zazwyczaj żąda zapłacenia kar umownych, a wykonawca nie zgadza się z ich zasadnością i wysokością, wówczas dochodzi do sporu. Oceniamy stopień zawinienia i skutki, jakie te opóźnienia spowodowały – mówi Mariusz Haładyj. – Inną przyczyną bywa brak precyzji postanowień umownych. Dlatego często zwracamy uwagę na to, żeby na etapie konstruowania umów poświęcić temu jak najwięcej czasu. Im lepiej przygotujemy umowę, im ona będzie bardziej precyzyjna, tym mniejsze ryzyko późniejszych sporów na gruncie interpretacji postanowień umownych.

Niemal 90 proc. sporów kończy się ostatecznie wygraną państwa przed sądem.

– W ostatnich latach liczba sporów utrzymuje się na podobnym poziomie. Natomiast częściej dochodzi do rozwiązania sytuacji spornych w sposób polubowny. Strona publiczna i prywatna częściej podpisują ugodę – potwierdza Mariusz Haładyj.

Według danych Prokuratorii Generalnej, w 2018 roku wartość roszczeń w sporach zakończonych ugodą wyniosła 1,2 mld zł, a rok później – niemal 1,5 mld zł. Spośród spraw zamkniętych w 2019 roku zawarto 84 ugody, podczas gdy rok wcześniej jedynie 22. To znaczący przyrost, a do tego dochodzą jeszcze inne sprawy w tym sektorze, w których ugodę zawierały inne jednostki z sektora finansów publicznych.

Statystyki dotyczące pozasądowego rozstrzygania sporów publiczno-prywatnych wciąż jednak nie są imponujące – większość spraw trafia na długie lata do sądu, ze szkodą dla gospodarki. Zarówno urzędnicy, jak i przedsiębiorcy coraz częściej widzą jednak korzyść w mediacjach i zawieraniu ugód, mimo że proces ten nie jest łatwy i nie wszystkie sprawy się do tego nadają.

– Zaletą mediacji jest obniżenie kosztów postępowania i skrócenie jego czasu. Tam, gdzie nie opłaca się prowadzić długoletnich sporów, które mogą być przegrane, należałoby z tej formy korzystać, jeżeli w opinii prawników prawdopodobieństwo zakończenia sporu z niższymi kosztami jest większe na drodze mediacji – mówi Zbigniew Wrona, radca prezesa Najwyższej Izby Kontroli.

Jedną z barier dla mediacji i zawierania ugód jest pokutujące, szczególnie wśród urzędników, przekonanie, że bezpieczniej iść do sądu. Firmy z sektora publicznego korzystają z mediacji, ale nadal boją się odpowiedzialności i tego, czy postępują zgodnie z prawem. Tymczasem bezzasadne odrzucenie racjonalnej propozycji ugodowej, które prowadzi do przegrania procesu i wydatkowania większych kwot, może wręcz budzić wątpliwości w zakresie gospodarności.

Eksperci zwracają też uwagę, że barierą dla polubownego zakończenia sporów jest też brak umiejętnego zastosowania istniejących rozwiązań prawnych. Wprowadzone w 2016 i 2017 roku rozwiązania legislacyjne znacząco usprawniły prowadzenie mediacji pomiędzy sektorem prywatnym a publicznym, a artykuł 54 a ustawy o finansach publicznych stwarza duże możliwości zawierania ugód w sporach publiczno-prywatnych. Jeszcze większe zapewni nowe Prawo zamówień publicznych, które ma wejść w życie w 2021 roku.

– Oferuje ono paletę rozwiązań, które zmniejszają ryzyko zaistnienia konfliktów i sytuacji spornych, natomiast w sytuacji, kiedy one powstają, stwarza mechanizmy do tego, żeby spróbować rozwiązać je w sposób koncyliacyjny. To np. obowiązek współpracy zamawiającego i wykonawcy przy realizacji umowy. To również określone rozwiązania przewidziane w umowach, a więc płatności częściowe, zaliczkowanie, określone formuły związane z akceptowaniem bądź brakiem akceptacji podwykonawców – wymienia Hubert Nowak, prezes Urzędu Zamówień Publicznych.

Eksperci zgodnie twierdzą, że już w tej chwili prawo sprzyja ugodom i pozasądowemu rozstrzyganiu sporów pomiędzy sektorem publicznym a prywatnym. Ważna jest zmiana nastawienia, nawyków i pozbycie się obaw.

– Wdrożenie każdego rozwiązania prawnego wymaga czasu, dobrych praktyk i liderów, a więc podmiotów, które pokażą, że rzeczywiście zaistniały problemy i dało się je rozwiązać w ten sposób. To sprawi, że liczba sporów rozwiązywanych ugodowo będzie rosła, bo każdy spór ma negatywny wpływ na realizowaną inwestycję, np. wpływ kosztowy, terminowy, społeczny, ale także wpływ na kolejne postępowania prowadzone przez inwestorów, ponieważ konflikty mogą być interpretowane jako nienależyte wykonanie umowy przez danego wykonawcę i blokować mu możliwość udziału w kolejnych postępowaniach – podkreśla Hubert Nowak.




źródło: newseria.pl


tagi: prawo zamówień publicznych, przetargi publiczne, reforma prawa zamówień publicznych, Urząd Zamówień Publicznych, Prokuratoria Generalna, pozasądowe rozstrzyganie sporów, mediacje, inwestycje infrastrukturalne, GDDKiA, spory publiczno-prywatne,


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