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Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/DB/pgsql.php on line 323

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Strict Standards: Non-static method xajaxPluginManager::getInstance() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /__handel_admin/lib/xajax.inc.php on line 194

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Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/DB/pgsql.php on line 323

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Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/DB/pgsql.php on line 323

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Strict Standards: Non-static method DB::isManip() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/DB/pgsql.php on line 323

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Strict Standards: Non-static method PEAR::isError() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /PEAR/HTML/QuickForm.php on line 603

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Firmy będą ograniczać nowe miejsca pracy, a nawet redukować zatrudnienie

Gospodarka

Firmy będą ograniczać nowe miejsca pracy, a nawet redukować zatrudnienie

Piątek, 06 marca 2020
Znalezienie kandydatów o odpowiednich kompetencjach, utrzymanie w firmach pracowników z państw trzecich oraz nieprzewidywalność kosztów zatrudnienia – to największe wyzwania stojące przed polskimi pracodawcami. Jak prognozują eksperci Konfederacji Lewiatan, bezrobocie nie wzrośnie gwałtownie, ale na rynku pracy pojawiły się już pierwsze symptomy wskazujące na ograniczenie tworzenia nowych miejsc pracy, a nawet redukcje zatrudnienia. Większe są też oczekiwania pracodawców wobec kompetencji kandydatów w związku z postępującą automatyzacją i cyfryzacją.
Dane GUS wskazują, że w styczniu bezrobocie wyniosło 5,5 proc. To o 0,3 pkt proc. więcej niż w grudniu, ale wzrosty są typowe dla tego okresu. W ujęciu rocznym stopa bezrobocia zmniejszyła się o 0,6 pkt proc.

– W 2020 roku zostanie utrzymany 5-proc. poziom bezrobocia. Szacujemy, że wyniesie 5,6–5,7 proc. na koniec roku – mówi agencji Newseria Biznes Robert Lisicki, ekspert Konfederacji Lewiatan. – To nie oznacza, że przed pracodawcami nie będzie wyzwań. Jednym z najważniejszych będzie dostosowanie kompetencji i kwalifikacji pracowników oraz kandydatów do pracy do postępującej automatyzacji. Drugim wyzwaniem jest  to, że coraz większa grupa osób zatrudnionych odchodzi na emeryturę i ich aktywność zawodowa jest niewielka. Zapotrzebowanie na nowych pracowników mogą wypełnić obcokrajowcy, ale procedury zatrudniania cudzoziemców są skomplikowane.

Jak podkreśla ekspert, nie należy spodziewać się gwałtownego odpływu z rynku pracy obywateli krajów spoza Unii Europejskiej, ale zwiększa się konkurencyjność innych rynków pracy państw unijnych. Zatrudnianie obcokrajowców z tzw. państw trzecich umożliwiły Niemcy, podobne działania podjęli Czesi i Węgrzy.

– Polski rynek pracy musi być bardziej atrakcyjny, oferować możliwości rozwoju oraz stabilizacji zawodowej. Ma to również znaczenie z punktu widzenia pracodawców, bo to oni ponoszą duże koszty związane z pozyskaniem pracownika z zagranicy, co nie jest wcale tańsze niż zatrudnienie obywatela Polski. Jednak krajowe zasoby wyczerpały się w niektórych branżach i dlatego pracodawcy sięgają po cudzoziemców, szczególnie z Ukrainy. Znalezienie tam nowych kandydatów do pracy jest coraz trudniejsze – ocenia ekspert.

Najważniejszą kwestią w określeniu sytuacji obcokrajowców na polskim rynku pracy jest przyjęcie przez rząd strategii dotyczącej migracji – jasnych zasad, według których państwo będzie kształtować politykę dotyczącą obywateli krajów spoza Unii Europejskiej w perspektywie pięciu, dziesięciu, a nawet piętnastu lat.

– Według statystyk do 2030 roku na polskim rynku pracy ubędzie 1,5 mln osób. Już teraz należy zaplanować, jak zapobiec niedoborom pracowników na rynku. Z pewnością będzie on potrzebował zewnętrznego wsparcia – zauważa Robert Lisicki.

Wśród barier, jakie napotykają polscy pracodawcy w rozwoju swojej działalności, są coraz wyższe koszty zatrudnienia i ich nieprzewidywalność. Przykładem jest wzrost minimalnego wynagrodzenia na cztery miesiące przed nowym rokiem kalendarzowym, co okazało się znacznym utrudnieniem i obciążeniem finansowym dla wielu małych i średnich firm, ale również dużych przedsiębiorstw, które korzystają z usług podwykonawców.

– Strategię zatrudnienia i strukturę zamówień buduje się w dłuższej perspektywie, więc nagłe zmiany warunków płacy i brak informacji, na czym będzie polegała polityka państwa w zakresie wynagrodzeń, podatków i składek na ubezpieczenia społeczne, komplikuje działalność firm – wyjaśnia ekspert Konfederacji Lewiatan. – Drugi element tej niepewności to zapowiedzi szeregu modyfikacji w zakresie np. ubezpieczeń społecznych, które do dzisiaj nie zostały jednoznacznie rozstrzygnięte.

Kolejny element to wsparcie dla pracodawców w finansowaniu szkoleń dla pracowników. Według danych Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego aż 54 proc. Polaków zadeklarowało, że nie podnosiło swoich kompetencji zawodowych.

– To znacznie więcej niż w innych krajach Unii Europejskiej. Jeżeli polska gospodarka ma być bardziej innowacyjna, potrzebuje osób, które rozwijają swoje umiejętności przez cały okres aktywności zawodowej. Z kolei pracodawcy potrzebują wsparcia, które pomogłoby im finansowo wesprzeć pracowników i kandydatów do pracy w podnoszeniu kwalifikacji. Inwestycje firm są konieczne, ale wzrost kompetencji pracowników jest korzystny dla całej gospodarki, dlatego jest to zadanie ogólnokrajowe, zarówno dla firm, związków zawodowych, jak i dla rządu – przekonuje Robert Lisicki.

Jak podają eksperci Konfederacji Lewiatan, stopa bezrobocia w 2019 roku była niższa niż rok wcześniej. Pracodawcy odczuwali brak pracowników, więc byli skłonni zatrudniać osoby bez koniecznych kwalifikacji i doszkalać je na własny koszt. Obecnie możliwe jest ograniczenie tej skłonności. W wyniku znacznego podniesienia płacy minimalnej i przyspieszenia procesów automatyzacji w polskich przedsiębiorstwach osoby o nieaktualnych kwalifikacjach lub bez kwalifikacji zawodowych mogą mieć większe trudności z utrzymaniem i znalezieniem pracy.

Z danych OECD „The Future of Work 2019” wynika, że na polskim rynku zachodzi duże ryzyko automatyzacji dla prawie 20 proc. miejsc pracy, a w przypadku kolejnych 30 proc. jest ono znaczące. Badanie Work Service wskazuje, że prawie 19 proc. firm widzi w automatyzacji ogromny potencjał i ją wdraża lub planuje. Kolejne 26 proc. interesuje się tym tematem, ale na razie nie ma konkretnych planów. Braki kadrowe są jedną z przyczyn, dla której firmy chcą wdrażać automatyzację.




źródło: newseria.pl


tagi: rynek pracy, Konfederacja Lewiatan, zatrudnianie obcokrajowców, minimalne wynagrodzenie za pracę,


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