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Niedobory wody poważnym problemem na coraz większym obszarze Polski

Porady Prawne i Finansowe

Niedobory wody poważnym problemem na coraz większym obszarze Polski

Czwartek, 20 lutego 2020
Największe niedobory wody w Polsce notowane są w pasie centralnym – od Ziemi Lubuskiej, poprzez Wielkopolskę i Mazowsze, aż po Lubelszczyznę i część Pojezierza Mazurskiego. Jednak specjaliści alarmują, że obszar ten powiększa się i problem suszy dotyczy okresowo kolejnych miejsc na mapie Polski. – Na ilość opadów nie mamy żadnego wpływu, ale możemy przeciwdziałać skutkom ich braku, np. zbiornikami retencyjnymi – podkreśla Sergiusz Kieruzel z Wód Polskich. Programy wspierające takie inwestycje uruchamiane są przez kolejne samorządy. Na dofinansowanie mogą też liczyć rolnicy. Do sukcesu potrzebna jest również edukacja społeczeństwa, jak oszczędzać wodę.
– W ubiegłym roku około 10–12 proc. gmin miało bardzo duże problemy z niedoborem wody, a w ponad 300 gminach ogłoszono stany alarmowe z uwagi na brak wody – mówi agencji Newseria Biznes Sergiusz Kieruzel, dyrektor Biura Prezesa Państwowego Gospodarstwa Wodnego Wody Polskie. – Niestety obszar dotknięty suszą zwiększa się. Jeszcze niedawno były to pewne punkty na mapie Polski centralnej, teraz właściwie to jest cała Polska centralna, ale także części województw położonych nad morzem, np. w Zachodniopomorskiem, czyli tam, gdzie susza zawsze była mniej dotkliwa.

Podobnie jest w górach. Wprawdzie suma opadów jest w nich największa w Polsce (średnia roczna suma opadów to ponad 1,7 tys. mm na mkw.), ale i tam są takie obszary, np. na Podkarpaciu, w północnej części Małopolski, gdzie już występuje susza glebowa.

– Cała Polska dotknięta jest bardzo niskimi stanami wód rzek. Jest to tzw. susza hydrologiczna. Szczególnie obszary w Dolinie Noteci, Dolinie Narwi i Dolinie Warty, gdzie są bardzo niskie stany wód, również należą do terenów dotkniętych problemem suszy – dodaje Kieruzel.

Jak podaje Instytut Meteorologii i Gospodarki Wodnej – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ubiegłoroczne lato przyniosło istotne niedobory opadów atmosferycznych, ekstremalnie wysokie temperatury powietrza i spadek stanów wody w rzekach. Było to szczególnie odczuwalne w czerwcu. W lipcu nie było lepiej – poza ulewnymi deszczami na Mazowszu, Podlasiu i Lubelszczyźnie, które doprowadziły nawet do lokalnych podtopień, panowała susza. Średnio w Polsce lipcowe opady uplasowały się na poziomie 69 proc. normy. Sierpień był pod względem opadów bardzo zróżnicowany w poszczególnych regionach kraju. Choć średnio w Polsce suma opadów za ten miesiąc była zbliżona do normy (91 proc.), to w województwach południowo-wschodnich i południowych (wynik ulewnych deszczy w drugiej dekadzie sierpnia) znacznie tę normę przekraczała. Z kolei w pasie centralnym odnotowano istotne niedobory wilgoci (74–24 proc. normy).

Ciepła i bezśnieżna zima przyczynia się do suszy glebowej. Dane na temat wilgotności gleby w połowie stycznia br. wskazują, że jest ona bardzo niska – poniżej 40 proc., a miejscami nawet 35 proc. Wprawdzie w kolejnych tygodniach sytuacja się poprawiła, ale eksperci IMGW podkreślają, że aby odbudowały się zasoby wodne sprzed zeszłorocznej suszy, mżawka powinna padać nieprzerwanie przez 60 dni. Brak opadów przyczynił się do tego, że na Kujawach, w województwach zachodniopomorskim, pomorskim, wielkopolskim oraz części łódzkiego i warmińsko-mazurskiego w styczniu odnotowano intensywną suszę atmosferyczną i rolniczą.

Sergiusz Kieruzel podkreśla, że choć na zjawiska atmosferyczne człowiek nie ma bezpośredniego wpływu, to już skutkom braku opadów da się przeciwdziałać. Na działania nakierowane na walkę ze skutkami suszy i powodzi PGW Wody Polskie przeznaczą ok. 400 mln zł.

– Podobnie jak w przypadku powodzi możliwe jest łagodzenie następstw suszy. Przeważnie te kwestie są ze sobą powiązane – zauważa. – Po pierwsze, retencja, zarówno na poziomie gospodarstwa domowego, jak i retencja śródpolna na poziomie lokalnym i wreszcie budowa dużych zbiorników retencyjnych, które podczas nawalnego deszczu zgromadzą wodę i ochronią przed powodzią. Z kolei w okresie suszy zapas wody poprawi bilans wodny i chroni przed skutkami niedoborów wody.

Tego typu inicjatywy podejmuje coraz więcej samorządów. Oferują one wsparcie finansowe dla inwestycji w zbiorniki retencyjne i gromadzenie deszczówki. Wśród przykładów można wymienić programy: Warszawa chwyta wodę, łódzka Deszczówka – gromadzenie wód opadowych, wrocławski Złap deszcz, Po(d)lej deszczem w Sosnowcu. Takie wsparcie jest bardzo istotne, gdyż Polska pod względem gromadzenia wody znajduje się w ogonie państw UE.

Jak podkreśla ekspert, jeszcze 30–40 lat temu „łapanie” deszczówki było dość powszechną praktyką, a zgromadzoną w ten sposób wodę wykorzystywano np. do podlewania ogrodu. Obecnie właściciele działek wykorzystują do tego wodę z wodociągów miejskich.

– W wielu krajach afrykańskich czy azjatyckich podlewanie ogródka czystą i zdrową wodą pitną byłoby odbierane ze zdziwieniem, a może nawet ze złością z powodu jej marnotrawstwa – zauważa Sergiusz Kieruzel. – Potrzebna jest wiedza i edukacja społeczeństwa, aby ludzie wiedzieli, jak jeszcze można zaoszczędzić wodę, a przede wszystkim jak jej nie marnować.

Działkowcy powinni także przestawiać się na rośliny, które potrzebują mniej wody.

– Dlatego bardzo polecamy program Kwietne łąki, czyli sianie ziół i kwiatów, których nie trzeba często kosić i które zatrzymują wilgoć w glebie, a w dodatku ładnie wyglądają i pachną – mówi Sergiusz Kieruzel. – Wskazane jest też odtwarzanie naturalnych zbiorników wodnych – stawów, oczek wodnych, zalesień śródpolnych, mokradeł, które magazynują wodę w glebie.

Od 21 lutego rolnicy mogą wnioskować w Agencji Restrukturyzacji i Modernizacji Rolnictwa o dofinansowanie inwestycji w obszarze nawadniania. Mogą to być m.in. budowa studni i zbiorników oraz zakup maszyn i urządzeń do poboru, magazynowania, uzdatniania, odzyskiwania lub rozprowadzania wody, instalacji nawadniających i systemów do sterowania nawadnianiem.




źródło: newseria.pl


tagi: susza, mała retencja, zbiorniki retencyjne, marnotrawstwo wody, suma opadów,


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