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Czy najemcy centrów handlowych mogą nie płacić czynszu w związku z ograniczeniem handlu

Gospodarka

Czy najemcy centrów handlowych mogą nie płacić czynszu w związku z ograniczeniem handlu

Poniedziałek, 16 marca 2020
14 marca 2020 r. weszło w życie Rozporządzenia Ministra Zdrowia ograniczające między innymi handel w centrach handlowych z uwagi na epidemię koronawirusa. Czy wszystkie centra zostały nim objęte? Kto musi zamknąć sklep, a kto może nadal prowadzić handel? Czy za czas trwania ograniczeń należy się czynsz najmu? Co z pracownikami sklepu? Na te pytania odpowiada mec. Joanna Domoń – Kula z kancelarii prawnej Causa Finita.
Czy ograniczenia dotyczą wszystkich centrów handlowych?

Nie. Zgodnie z §5 ustęp 2 Rozporządzenia czasowe ograniczenie handlu detalicznego obejmuje obiekty handlowe o powierzchni sprzedaży powyżej 2.000 metrów kwadratowych. Mogą to być zarówno sklepy wolnostojące, jak i centra czy parki handlowe. W przypadku tych dwóch ostatnich kategorii, powierzchnię sprzedaży sumuje się z powierzchni poszczególnych lokali a także poszczególnych budynków, jeżeli tworzą całość techniczno - użytkową.

Czy w lokalu można nadal prowadzić punkt odbioru zamówień internetowych, o ile klienci nie będą wchodzić do sklepu?

Nie. Ograniczenie wprowadzono po to, by ludzie nie gromadzili się w takich miejscach jak centra handlowe. Stąd kategoryczne brzmienie przepisów rozporządzenia, mówiące o całkowitym zakazie prowadzenia wymienionych w nim działalności (§6 ustęp 2 Rozporządzenia).

Które lokale powinny zostać zamknięte?

Ograniczenia dotyczą najemców powierzchni handlowej, których przeważająca działalność polega na handlu:
  • wyrobami tekstylnymi,
  • wyrobami odzieżowymi,
  • obuwiem i wyrobami skórzanymi,
  • meblami i sprzętem oświetleniowym,
  • sprzętem radiowo-telewizyjnym lub sprzętem gospodarstwa domowego
  • artykułami piśmiennymi i księgarskimi;
Rozporządzenie wymaga także zamknięcia restauracji, barów, klubów tanecznych, basenów, siłowni, klubów fitness oraz kin.

Co ciekawe, ograniczenia powyższe nie dotyczą salonów jubilerskich, sklepów z zabawkami dla dzieci oraz salonów optycznych. Należy to jednak potraktować jako niedopatrzenie.

Co z czynszami najmu za ten okres?

Ponieważ adresatem ograniczeń w handlu są najemcy powierzchni handlowej, kodeks cywilny nie zawiera co do zasady możliwości uchylenia się przez nich od czynszu, i to nawet pomimo koronawirusa. Wynajmujący mogą więc oświadczyć, że oto udostępniają najemcom lokale, a to, że Rząd nie pozwala im ich otworzyć, to już nie ich zmartwienie.

Dzieje się tak dlatego, że nie występuje tutaj tak zwana „niezawiniona niemożliwość świadczenia” (art. 495 K.c.), która umożliwiłaby obydwu stronom uchylenie się od wzajemnych obowiązków z powodu nadzwyczajnych okoliczności. Innymi słowy, rządowy zakaz obiektywnie nie przeszkadza wynajmującemu spełnić jego świadczenia, czyli wydać najemcy lokalu, ani najemcy - zapłacić czynszu. Spełnienie świadczenia przez najemcę może być jedynie - z powodu narzuconych ograniczeń - znacznie utrudnione.

Niemniej, ryzyko to, zgodnie z prawem, obciąża najemcę. Kodeks cywilny nie przewiduje w tym wypadku tak zwanej małej klauzuli: "rebus sic stantibus”, upoważniającej najemcę do żądania obniżenia czynszu, jeżeli z obiektywnych powodów nie może on czerpać pożytków z rzeczy - tak, jak to ma na przykład miejsce w przypadku umowy dzierżawy - art. 700 K.c.

Szczęśliwie jednak dla najemców, wiele standardowych projektów umów najmu lokali w centrach handlowych zostało do naszego kraju „przywiezionych” przez prawników zza granicy. Tam zaś chętnie wpisuje się do umów najmu okoliczności tak zwanej „siły wyższej”, które zwalniają strony z obowiązków umownych w razie wystąpienia niezależnych od nich okoliczności. Umowy te zostały w konsekwencji „z dobrodziejstwem inwentarza” wdrożone w wielu centrach handlowych w Polsce. Wielu najemców może teraz żądać na ich podstawie zwolnienia z czynszu za czas trwania ograniczeń w handlu. Trzeba jednak wcześniej sprawdzić, co konkretnie mówi na ten temat dana umowa najmu.

Na koniec kolejna ciekawostka: zakaz, o którym tutaj mowa, kierowany jest do najemców powierzchni handlowej. Nie obejmuje więc sprzedaży w sklepach własnych (tzn. takich, których sieci są właścicielami, a nie najemcami).

Co z pracownikami sklepów?

Nie można wysyłać pracowników na przymusowy urlop. Można natomiast proponować pracownikom, aby wykorzystali urlop wypoczynkowy. Chętnym nie można też odmówić wzięcia urlopu bezpłatnego. Konieczność zamknięcia sklepu z uwagi na fakt ograniczenia w handlu powinna być traktowana jako przerwa w wykonywaniu pracy z przyczyn niezależnych od pracownika. Jest to sytuacja zbliżona do przestoju i wymaga analogicznego postępowania. Pracownikowi trzeba zatem za okres zamknięcia sklepu zapłacić tak zwane „wynagrodzenie przestojowe”.



tagi: centra handlowe, czynsz, najemcy, prawo, finanse,


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