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Zabezpieczenia biometryczne nie gwarantują pełnej ochrony

Oprogramowanie

Zabezpieczenia biometryczne nie gwarantują pełnej ochrony

Czwartek, 27 września 2018
Ataki hakerskie mające na celu przechwycenie danych biometrycznych zdarzają się coraz częściej. Specjaliści od cyberbezpieczeństwa apelują, by zadbać o ich ochronę. Dane biometryczne takie jak odcisk linii papilarnych czy skan twarzy mogą być wykorzystywane do odblokowywania smartfonów, komputerów czy drzwi, ale też m.in. do uwierzytelniania transakcji w systemach bankowych. Dane te należą do szczególnych danych osobowych i podlegają wzmożonej ochronie, ponieważ po ich ewentualnej kradzieży, użytkownik staje się bezradny – wymyślone hasło można zmienić, ale danych biometrycznych zmienić się nie da. Ofiarami hakerów padli już m.in. Angela Merkel oraz tajni agenci USA.
– Technologie biometryczne mocno się rozwijają. Są one bardzo atrakcyjne, dlatego że umożliwiają nam bardzo wygodne logowanie się czy potwierdzanie transakcji. Nie możemy zapominać o tym, że dane biometryczne są takim samym hasłem czy ID użytkownika jak te, które wymyślamy. Jest tylko jedna zasadnicza różnica – o ile hasło po kradzieży możemy zmienić, o tyle swoich danych biometrycznych już nie – mówi w rozmowie z agencją informacyjną Newseria Innowacje Marek Ostafil, dyrektor ds. operacyjnych w Cyberus Labs.

Hakerzy mają obecnie wiele sposobów na przechwycenie danych biometrycznych, takich jak linie papilarne czy próbka głosu. Technologie biometryczne, które w teorii mają zabezpieczać, wielokrotnie w przeszłości zostały już zhakowane. W 2015 r. amerykańskie biuro OPM (United States Office of Personnel Management) poinformowało o ataku hakerskim, w którym wyciekły dane ponad 20 mln amerykańskich obywateli, w tym ponad 5,5 mln odcisków palców. Wśród ofiar znaleźli się m.in. tajni agenci, którzy w ten sposób zostali zdekonspirowani. Ofiarami hakerów padają również osoby publiczne.

– Jednym z najbardziej spektakularnych przykładów było włamanie do telefonu minister obrony RFN Ursuli von der Leyen oraz kanclerz Angeli Merkel, których odciski palców zostały sfotografowane za pomocą aparatu fotograficznego bardzo wysokiej rozdzielczości. Zdjęcia zrobiono na szklankach, których panie używały podczas konferencji prasowej. Następnie odciski palców zostały powiększone, została zrobiona z nich kopia i technologia gotowa – tłumaczy Marek Ostafil.

Poszkodowanymi mogą stać się również osoby prywatne, ponieważ skradzione dane biometryczne mogą być przez cyberprzestępców wykorzystane np. do uzyskania dostępu do konta bankowego

– Oczywiście jest rzesza hakerów, którzy kradną pieniądze z konta. Przejmują nasze kody do autoryzacji transakcji i to nawet nie dlatego, żeby ukraść nam 50 czy 500 zł z konta. Najcenniejsza jest tożsamość, podszycie się pod nas, wykorzystanie naszej tożsamości na przykład do prania brudnych pieniędzy, handlu narkotykami, bronią itd. Darkweb jest pełen skradzionych tożsamości, którymi cyberprzestępcy się posługują właśnie w tym celu – przestrzega ekspert.

Zgodnie z obowiązującym od 25 maja Rozporządzeniem o Ochronie Danych Osobowych (RODO) dane biometryczne należą do szczególnych danych osobowych i podlegają wzmożonej ochronie. Zabronione jest np. ich przetwarzanie w celu jednoznacznego zidentyfikowania osoby. Odstępstwo od tej zasady dopuszcza się jednak m. in. w przypadku wyraźnej zgody osoby. Choć operatorzy muszą zapewnić najwyższy poziom bezpieczeństwa danych, to specjaliści radzą, by w przypadku dostępu do usług bankowych stosować kilkupoziomowe uwierzytelnienie.

– Każde zabezpieczenie, jeżeli oprzemy się tylko na jednym modelu zabezpieczenia, nie będzie wystarczające. Zasadą cyberbezpieczeństwa jest włączenie trzech elementów, które zapewniają maksymalną ochronę: coś, czym użytkownik jest, czyli w tym wypadku np. dane biometryczne, coś, co użytkownik wie, czyli hasło lub kod PIN, oraz to, co użytkownik ma, czyli np. klucz USB czy telefon. Połączenie tych elementów teoretycznie powinno dać nam największą gwarancję bezpieczeństwa – przekonuje przedstawiciel Cyberus Labs.

Tymczasem biometria znajduje coraz szersze zastosowanie. Komisja Europejska rekomenduje wprowadzenie biometrycznych dowodów osobistych zawierających cyfrowy wizerunek twarzy i odcisk palca. Rozwiązaniami z tego zakresu zainteresowani są ponadto wydawcy kart płatniczych. Mastercard planuje w przyszłym roku uruchomić pilotażowy program polegający na weryfikacji tożsamości na podstawie twarzy lub odcisku palca.

Z prognoz MarketsandMarkets wynika, że rynek systemów biometrycznych osiągnie do 2022 roku wartość 33 mld dol. Z kolei analitycy z Deloitte przewidują, że do końca 2018 roku 29 proc. użytkowników smartfonów skorzysta z opcji weryfikacji tożsamości za pomocą linii papilarnych. Technicznie taką możliwość ma mieć natomiast 42 proc. urządzeń mobilnych. Do 2023 roku 80 proc. telefonów ma oferować zabezpieczenia biometryczne.



źródło: newseria.pl


tagi: cyberbezpieczeństwo, dane biometryczne, linie papilarne, uwierzytelnienie, banki, telefony, smartfony, RODO, dane osobowe, dane wrażliwe,


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